Advanced Course on
Computational Models of Grounding in Dialogue
Abstract Grounding is the process by which participants in a
conversation establish new common ground. This process includes not
just transmission of declarative utterances, but inferential and
feedback processes. This process is also of critical importance to
artificial dialogue systems, which include additional challenges of
more limited input recognition, ontologies and inferential
abilities. In this course we will review models and uses for common
ground in pragmatics and computational agent theories, and then
examine a variety of proposals of how common ground can be
established. These proposals include both descriptive analyses of
behavior, as well as generative proposals that can be used by
computational systems engaged in dialogue to decide on next moves. We
will also look at multimodal grounding, and advanced topics, including
multiparty grounding, incremental grounding and degrees of grounding,
as well as how grounding models have been used for studying other
Pre-Requisites No formal pre-requisites, but some
familiarity with dialogue and pragmatics will be helpful.
Approximate Syllabus (Lecture Notes available after each class)
- J. Allwood, Nivre, J. and Ahlsén, E. "On the Semantics and Pragmatics of Linguistic Feedback" in Journal of Semantics, 1992
- Allwood, J., & Cerrato, L. A Study of Gestural Feedback Expressions. First Nordic Symposium on Multimodal Communcation-. Paggio P. Jokinen, K. Jönsson. A. (eds). Copenhagen 23-24. September 2003, pp 7-22
- M. Baker, T. Hansen, R. Joiner and D. Traum, ``The role of grounding in collaborative learning tasks'', in Pierre Dillenbourg, editor, ``Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches'', Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., pages 31--63, 1999.
- Mark Buckley and Magdalena Wolska. A Grounding Approach to Modelling Tutorial Dialogue Structures. In Jonathan Ginzburg, Pat Healey and Yo Sato, editors, Proceedings of LONDIAL 2008, the 12th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue, pages 15-22, London, UK, 2008.
- Cahn, J. E., & Brennan, S. E. (1999). A psychological model of grounding and repair in dialog. Proceedings, AAAI Fall Symposium on Psychological Models of Communication in Collaborative Systems (pp. 25-33). North Falmouth, MA: American Association for Artificial Intelligence.
- Carletta, J., Anderson, A. H., & Garrod, S. (2002). Seeing eye to eye: an account of grounding and understanding in work groups. Cognitive Studies: Bulletin of the Japanese Cognitive Science Society, 9(1), 1-20, March. Invited paper for the special issue entitled "Towards Sciences of Linguistic Communication".
- Clark, H. H. (1996). Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Clark, H. H., & Marshall, C. R. (1981). Definite reference and mutual knowledge. In A. K. Joshi, B. Webber, & I. Sag (Eds.), Elements of discourse understanding (pp. 10-63). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Clark, H. H., & Wilkes-Gibbs, D. (1986). Referring as a collaborative process. Cognition , 22, 1-39.
- Clark, H. H., & Schaefer, E. F. (1989).Contributing to discourse. Cognitive Science , 13, 259-294.
- Clark, H. H., and Brennan, S. A. (1991). Grounding in communication. In L.B. Resnick, J.M. Levine, & S.D. Teasley (Eds.). Perspectives on socially shared cognition . Washington: APA Books.
- Phillip R. Cohen. On Knowing What to Say: Planning Speech Acts. PhD thesis, University of Toronto, 1978. Reproduced as TR 118 Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto.
- Phillip R. Cohen and Hector J. Levesque. Confirmations and joint action. In Proceedings IJCAI-91, pages 951–957, 1991.
- Pierre Dillenbourg and David Traum, Sharing solutions: persistence and grounding in multi-modal collaborative problem solving. in Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15:121--151, 2006.
- Barbara [J.] Grosz and Sarit Kraus. Collaborative plans for group activities. In Proceedings IJCAI-93, pages 367–373, 1993.
- Barbara J. Grosz and Candace L. Sidner. Plans for discourse. In P. R. Cohen, J. Morgan, and M. E. Pollack, editors, Intentions in Communication. MIT Press, 1990.
- Y. Katagiri and A. Shimojima. Display acts in grounding negotiations. In Proceedings of Gotalog 2000, the 4th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue, pages 195--198, 2000.
- David K. Lewis. Convention: A Philosophical Study. Harvard University Press, 1969.
Matheson, Massimo Poesio, and David Traum, Modelling
Grounding and Discourse Obligations Using Update Rules, in
Proceedings of the 1st Annual Meeting of the North American
Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL2000), May 2000.
- Susan W. McRoy and Graeme Hirst. The repair of speech act misunderstandings by abductive inference. Computational Linguistics, 21(4):435-478, 1995.
- I Mushin, L Stirling, J Fletcher, R Wales Discourse structure, grounding, and prosody in task-oriented dialogue Discourse Processes 35 (1), 1-31
- Nakano, Y., Reinstein, G., Stocky, T., Cassell, J. (2003) "Towards a Model of Face-to-Face Grounding" Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. July 7-12, Sapporo, Japan.
- Novick, D., and Sutton, S. (1994). An empirical model of acknowledgment for spoken-language systems, Proceedings of ACL-94, Las Cruces, NM, June, 1994, 96-101.
- Novick, D., and Ward, K., (1993). Mutual beliefs of multiple conversants: A computational model of collaboration in air traffic control, Proc. of AAAI'93, Washington, DC, July, 1993, 196-201.
- Novick, D., Walton, L., and Ward, K. (1996). Contribution graphs in multiparty conversations, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spoken Dialogue (ISSD-96), Philadelphia, PA, October, 1996, 53-56.
- David G. Novick, Iván Gris: Grounding and Turn-Taking in Multimodal Multiparty Conversation. HCI (4) 2013: 97-106
- T. Paek and E. Horvitz. Conversation
as Action Under Uncertainty Proceedings of the 16th Conference on
Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI-2000), Stanford, CA, June
and Allen A
analysis of indirect speech acts.
- Antonio Roque and
David Traum, Degrees of Grounding Based on Evidence of Understanding
In proceedings of
The 9th SIGdial Workshop on
Discourse and Dialogue (SIGdial 2008), June, 2008.
- Antonio Roque and David Traum, Improving a Virtual Human Using a Model of Degrees of Grounding, in proceedings of International Joint Conerence on Artificial Intelligence IJCAI-09, Pasadena, CA.
- Stephen R. Schiffer. Meaning. Oxford University Press, 1972.
- Atsue Takeoka and Atsushi Shimojima, "Grounding-Styles of Aged Dyads: an Exploratory Study." Third SIGdial Workshop on Discourse and Dialogue: Proceedings of the Workshop. Association for Computational Linguistics, http://www.aclweb.org, 188-195, 2002.
- David Traum, A Computational Theory of Grounding in Natural Language Conversation, TR 545 and Ph.D. Thesis, Computer Science Dept., U. Rochester, December 1994.
- David Traum and Peter Heeman. Utterance Units and Grounding in Spoken Dialogue. Proceedings ICSLP, October, 1996.
R. Traum Computational
Models of Grounding in Collaborative Systems,
working notes of AAAI Fall Symposium on Psychological Models of
Communication, p. 124-131, November, 1999.
- David Traum, Issues in multi-party dialogues, in Advances in Agent Communication Ed. F. Dignum, Springer-Verlag LNAI 2922 pp. 201-211, 2004.
- Thomas Visser , David Traum, David DeVault, Rieks op den Akker A Model for Incremental Grounding in Spoken Dialogue Systems to appear in Journal of Multimodal User Interfaces, 2014.
- Naomi Yamashita, Rieko Inaba, Hideaki Kuzuoka, Toru Ishida: Difficulties in establishing common ground in multiparty groups using machine translation. CHI 2009: 679-688